Cirsium arvense is the worst thistle problem in much of its range. The plant list includes a further 515 scientific plant names of infraspecific rank for the genus cirsium. Pastures, prairies, roadsides, crop fields general description. Cirsium arvense can be confused with other thistles, especially bull thistle cirsium vulgare, and the.
Cirsium arvense canada thistle university of california, davis. Download pdf version formatted for print 189 kb native range temperate regions of eurasia. It occurs in nearly every upland herbaceous community within its range, and is a particular threat in grassland communities and riparian habitats. Foliage leaves are dark green and lanceolate to oblonglanceolate. When using herbicides always read the label, and when in. Cirsium arvense was a troublesome weed throughout southern europe and by the mid1700s was common in continental europe dewey 1901. Ecology and management of canada thistle cirsium arvense l. This article will describe canada thistle and how to eradicate it. The flowers heads are smooth and occur in small clusters. Antiproliferative and antibacterial activities of cirsium. Cirsium arvense is a plant native to southeastern europe and eastern portions of the mediterranean area and has been introduced in north america morishita in sheley and petroff 1999. Cirsium arvense canada thistle cirsium barnebyi barnebys thistle cirsium brevifolium palouse thistle cirsium brevistylum clustered thistle.
Leaves are green, concolorous or lighter on the lower side, and glabrous or very sparsely arachnoid on the lower side. Canada thistle cirsium arvense effects on yield components of spring wheat triticum. World wide web page at bacher s, friedli j, schsr i. These roots are brittle and readily reshoot if broken. Canada thistle is an erect herbaceous perennial with an extensive creeping rootstock. Hay, 1937, spread through clonal propagation, and to produce allelopathic effects, all of which promote a wide distribution in agricultural landscapes kazinczi et al. It is a tall herbaceous perennial plant, forming an extensive underground root system that sends up numerous erect stems each spring, reaching 12 m tall. Effects of selective cutting and timing of herbicide. Pronunciation of cirsium arvense with 1 audio pronunciation, 4 synonyms, 1 meaning, 1 translation and more for cirsium arvense.
Cirsium arvense is an herbaceous perennial in the aster family. Aminopyralid and clopyralid absorption and translocation in canada thistle cirsium arvense bekir bukun, todd a. Invasion history of north american canada thistle, cirsium arvense. Cirsium arvense new zealand plant conservation network. Requires open soil or water and disturbance for seed germination, or regeneration from vegetative propagules.
They should be controlled if you wish to grow garden plants in the area, since they compete for light, water and food. Cirsium arvense which had previously been used by toumefort 30 in his description of the canada thistle. Cirsium arvense, a rhizomatous perennial grows from 15 ft. The standard english name in its native area is creeping thistle. They are glabrous above, but their undersides have short, white hairs. Cirsium arvense canada thistle grows one to four feet tall. Identify canada thistle via its pictures, habitat, height, flowers and leaves. Cirsium arvense spreads vegetatively through horizontal growth of the root system, which can extend 45 m radially in one season. Aminopyralid and clopyralid absorption and translocation. Pdf aqueous root, stem and leaf extracts of 0, 5, 10 and 15 % wv of an allelopathic plant species viz. An illustrated flora of the northern united states, canada and the british possessions. Cirsium arvense is a troublesome and persistent perennial weed in the. Cirszum arvense, dioecy, hermaphrodites, seedset, pollen and ovule contributions.
Cirsium arvense creeping thistle, canada thistle pfaf plant. A conservation status rank is not applicable sna because the plant is an exotic nonnative in montana that is not a suitable target for conservation activities. Canada thistle national invasive species information. It is in flower from july to september, and the seeds ripen from august to october. Pdf invasion history of north american canada thistle. Jim jacobs, nrcs invasive species specialist, bozeman, mt. The currently accepted scientific name for canada thistle is cirsium arvense l. Canada thistle cirsium arvense is wild, edible and nutritious food. Several cirsium species are known for their uses in traditional medicine and consequently are studied for their phytochemical content and their biological activities. First introduced into north america as an impurity in imported crop seeds, it was seen as a problem weed in agricultural settings as early as the late 1700s anderson 1999.
Leaves are green, concolorous or lighter on the lower side, and glabrous or very. Control of canada thistle cirsium arvense introduction canada thistle is a federally listed invasive species native to europe, western asia, and northern africa. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Distinguishing characteristics ofcirsium arvense are 1 flowerheads small cirsium arvense in english. Writing in ohio, detmers 1927 stated that a mod erate temperature range, 0. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern united states and adjacent canada.
It was believed to have arrived in north america via french settlements in the early 17th century dewey 1901. Cirsium arvense is believed to have originated in the temperate middle. Canada thistle cirsium arvense description erect perennial plant 15 ft. Repeated grading of weed abundance and multivariate. The seed has tufts of tiny hair, or pappus, which can carry them far by wind. The plant list includes 1,551 scientific plant names of species rank for the genus cirsium. These differ from other thistle genera carduus, silybum and onopordum in having feathered hairs to their achenes. Growth and development of cirsium arvense in relation. Flowers are light lavender to purple, sometimes white. Erect plant up to 4 ft tall, typically found in patches due to spreading rootstalks. Distinguishing characteristics ofcirsium arvense are 1 flowerheads small writer has investigated. In nature conservation areas localized spot or manual treatments with a. Canada thistle was the dominant or codominant species on each of the study sites. Assessment of the compensation point of cirsium arvense.
The staundard inglis name in its native aurie is creeping thistle. Populations of canada thistle cirsium arvense, ranging from scattered shoots to dense patches, occur throughout the study area. Extensions from the leaf base down the stem, called wings, can be lacking cirsium arvense, conspicuous cirsium vulgare, or inconspicuous. Cirsium arvense wikibooks, open books for an open world. These become the classic thistledown for wind dispersal.
Albrecht, in perspectives for agroecosystem management, 2008. Cirsium arvense is a plant native to southeastern europe and. March 3, 2009 3 absence of impact information despite the high number of studies performed on this species, no targeted studies on the. Earlier studies suggest that this occurs at a stage of minimum below. However, september is one of the best times to start your assault. A statement from david keils description of cirsium is worth quoting here. Nufarm uk ltd wyke lane, wyke, bradford, west yorkshire bd12 9ej. Peterson aminopyralid is a new auxinic herbicide that provides canada thistle control at lower use rates than clopyralid. Description cirsium arvense is a dioecious, herbaceous perennial 50 160 cm tall with creeping rootstock and erect stem, branched near the top. The flower heads are smooth and occur in small clusters. Pinkylilac flowers, 1015mm are borne in clusters between june and september.
Genus cirsium may be biennials or perennials with spiny leaves and typical thistletype flowerheads details creeping thistle is a perennial reaching 1m in height. This pdf was written for my own information and for neighbors and friends who garden or have small market farms, who live in the rockies, and who are curious about the many traditional uses of weeds. Department of physics, chemistry and biology final thesis repeated grading of weed abundance and multivariate methods to improve efficacy in on. Pammel and king 40, writing concerning the variety inte.
The other genera have a pappus of simple unbranched hairs. Farmers are recommended to employ mechanical control when cirsium arvense is most sensitive to disturbance. For our analyses, we focused on spotted knapweed centaurea stoebe l. A decoction of the roots has been used to treat worms in children. Its leaves are irregularly lobed with spiny, toothed margins.
Its from a poem in a chapbook by abenaki writer and publisher, joe. Cirsium arvense can be confused with other thistles, especially bull thistle cirsium vulgare, and the closely related musk thistles carduus sp. Cirsium arvense readily propagates from stem and root fragments and thus plowing or other soil disturbance can increase thistle densities. The stems are prickly, erect and branched near the top. Cirsium arvense is a spinyleaved perennial herb up to 1 m tall, dioecious. Plant database entry for canada thistle cirsium arvense with 26 images, 3 comments, and 37 data details.
Creeping thistle, canada thistle is a widespread and abundant perennial weed of arable land and pastures, roadsides and waste ground. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed. Distinguishing characteristics ofcirsium arvense are 1 flowerheads small cirsium arvense, known as creeping thistle or canada thistle, is a species of the genus cirsium, native throughout europe, asia and northern africa description. In the framework of a previous study conducted on eight extremophile plants from tunisia, we highlighted that the crude methanolic extract of c. Next week, we will describe other common thistle species that occur in oregons willamette valley. Creeping thistle cirsium arvense is a weed that spreads using lateral roots. Canada thistle is a serious weed of agricultural land of all types and is one of the most serious weeds of temperate regions. Canada thistle cirsium arvense new and unread treemails. Cirsium arvense see carduus acanthoidescanada thistle asteraceae. Rosepurple or sometimes white flower heads appear in terminal clusters from june through october. Assessment for invasive plants not in trade form version date. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below. Canada thistle cirsium arvense is extremely difficult to kill. Cirsium is a genus of perennial and biennial flowering plants in the asteraceae, one of several genera known commonly as thistles.
Cirsium arvense is a perennial species of flowering plant in the family asteraceae, native throughout europe and northern asia, and widely introduced elsewhere. Indiana nonnative plant invasiveness ranking form assessment for invasive plants not in trade form version date. To evaluate and compare the effects of selective cutting with different timings of herbicide application on cirsium arvense in spring barley, a randomised block experiment was conducted in sweden in 20152017, in a field with a naturally occurring c. A species profile for canada thistle, californian thistle, canadian thistle, creeping thistle, field thistle, corn thistle, perennial thistle, field thistle from usda, national invasive species information center. Pdf herbicidal activity of aqueous extracts of cirsium arvense. Can germinateregenerate in vegetated areas but in a narrow range or in special conditions 2 c. Data source and references for cirsium arvense canada thistle from the usda plants database. Cirsium arvense, known as creeping thistle or canada thistle, is a species of the genus cirsium, native throughout europe, asia and northern africa description. In order to show the situation of a very successful species in terms of habitat maintenance and colonisation the long distance dispersal ability and conditions of cirsium arvense on the research farm were estimated. The reputation of cirsium has suffered greatly as a result of the introduction to north america of a few invasive weedy species from eurasia.1382 1047 1310 1157 1016 420 1173 396 844 152 598 161 1105 1524 1497 361 785 362 791 669 15 1010 901 1174 1170 405 1040 573 1076 512 453 837 552 884 851 1227 850 1238 472 636 927 696 1281 418 1416 1230 364